Stepping onto Red Square never ceases to inspire. For starters, the vast rectangular stretch of cobblestones, surrounded by architectural marvels, is an imposing and amazing sight. In fact, in old Russian krasny was the word for ‘beautiful’, and the square lives up to the original meaning of its name. Furthermore, it evokes an incredible sense of awe to stroll across a place where so much of Russian history unfolded. Red Square Russia
The square’s history
Red Square used to be a market square adjoining the merchants’ area in Kitay Gorod. It has always been a place where occupants of the Kremlin chose to congregate, celebrate and castigate for onlookers. Back in the days, Red Square was the top spot for high-profile executions. Such as those of the Cossack rebel Stepan Razin in 1671 and the Streltsy.
Stalin destroyed the first gateway built in 1680 because he thought it an impediment to the parades. And demonstrations held in Red Square. Architechs built the present day exact in 1995. Through the gateway is the bright Chapel of the Iverian Virgin. They originally built it in the late 18th century to house the icon of the same name.
Red Square Russia
Soviet rulers chose Red Square for their military parades, perhaps most poignantly on 7 November 1941. When tanks rolled straight off to the frontline outside Moscow; and during the Cold War, when lines of ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missile) rumbled across the square to remind the West of Soviet military might. On Victory Day in 2008, tanks rolled across Red Square for the first time. That is since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Red Square Russia
Nowadays Red Square is closed to traffic, which means the space is filled with tourists, bridal parties and business people snapping pictures and marveling at their surroundings. The square empties out at night, but this is also when it is at its most atmospheric. The Kremlin towers and St Basil’s domes, illuminated by floodlights and set against the night sky, create a spectacular panorama even better in person than on a postcard.
Red Square is also home to the world’s most famous mummy: that of Vladimir Ilych Lenin, founder of the Soviet Union. When he died of a massive stroke on 22 January 1924 (aged 53), a long line of mourners patiently gathered in the depths of winter for weeks to glimpse the body as it lay in state. Inspired by the spectacle, Stalin proposed that the father of Soviet communism should continue to serve the cause as a holy relic. The Russian administration made the decision to preserve Lenin’s corpse for perpetuity. This was against the vehement protests of his widow. As well Lenin’s expressed desire to be buried next to his mother in St Petersburg. Other communist leaders such as Josef Stalin are buried at the Kremlin Wall.
St Basil’s Cathedral
At the southern end of Red Square, framed by the massive facades of the Kremlin and GUM, stands the icon of Russia: St Basil’s Cathedral. This crazy confusion of colours, patterns and shapes is the culmination of a style that is unique to Russian architecture. Architects used this style of tent roofs and onion domes to design wooden churches.
The misnomer St Basil’s actually refers only to this extra northeastern chapel. The builders constructed it over the grave of the barefoot holy fool Vasily Basil the Blessed, who predicted Ivan’s damnation. Vasily, who died while Kazan was under siege, was buried beside the church which St Basil’s Cathedral soon replaced. They later canonized him.
Red Square Russia